Methods: A retrospective chart review of 255 children adopted from Ethiopia and evaluated from 2006-2011 at the international adoption clinic was done. One reviewer reviewed all infectious disease screens in each record. Initial and subsequent visit records were reviewed.
Results: The mean age of the study participants at medical evaluation was 1.4 years (range: 1 month to14.9 years); 58 % were girls. Ninety-one percent lived in an orphanage setting before adoption and stayed for 1 month to 9 years in institutions.
Of the 142 children evaluated for tuberculosis, either by tuberculin skin tests or Quantiferon Gold, forty four children had evidence of latent tuberculosis (31 %). None of these children had chest x-ray findings consistent with tuberculosis, and all were treated for latent tuberculosis. Six of 133 children (3 %) had detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg).
Of the 44 children tested for malaria 7 (16 %) had infection with a Plasmodium species. Two of these children were diagnosed by a positive blood smear (both children had both P vivax and P. falciparum), and five by a PCR test two were positive for P. falciparum and three had P vivax. No child had infection with hepatitis C, HIV or syphilis. 96 children of 217 tested for intestinal pathogens (44 %) had 1 or more pathogens identified. G lamblia antigen was detected in 75 (19%) of 193 children screened. 81 Children had stool microscopy positive for 1 more parasite G. lamblia and Blastocystis hominis being the most common ones.
Conclusion: The frequency of latent tuberculosis and asymptomatic malaria are higher in children adopted from Ethiopia than those reported in children adopted from other countries.