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17481

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency In Nigerian Children

Saturday, October 20, 2012
Room 346-347 (Morial Convention Center)
Olatundun Williams1, Daniel Gbadero2, Grace Edowhorhu2, Tina M. Slusher1 and Troy C. Lund1, (1)University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, (2)Bowen University Teaching Hospital/Baptist Medical Centre, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency affects some 400 million people worldwide and is the most common human enzymopathy. The majority of those affected live in the Eastern Hemisphere including sub-Saharan Africa where the burden of disease is substantial. G-6-PD deficiency is a significant cause of infection and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice.

Purpose

Our goal was to determine the prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency among Nigerian children of different ethnic backgrounds and to identify predictors of G-6-PD deficiency by analyzing vital signs and hematocrit and by asking screening questions about symptoms of hemolysis.

Methods

We studied 1,122 children (561 males and 561 females) aged 1 month to 15 years.  The mean age was 7.4 ± 3.2 years.  Children less than 6 years of age made up 35.6% of participants.  Children of Yoruba ethnicity made up the largest group (77.5%) followed by those of Tiv and Igede ethnicity (11.9%) and those of Igbo descent (10.6%). G-6-PD status was determined using the fluorescent spot method. 

Results

The overall prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency was 15.3% with a prevalence of 24.1% in males and 6.6% in females.  The prevalence in Yoruba children (16.9%) was significantly higher than that in Igbo (10.1%) and Tiv/Igede children (9.7%) (p= 0.024).  Mean oxygen saturation, heart rate and hematocrit were comparable in G-6-PD deficient and G-6-PD normal children. There was a statistically higher rate of reported yellow eyes in G-6-PD deficient children (15.2% compared to 7.8%, p= 0.013).  Rates of tea-colored urine and jaundice at birth did not differ significantly between the two groups.  G-6-PD deficient individuals with self-reported symptoms of hemolysis did not have higher rates of mentholated product use.

Conclusion

We were able to determine the prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency in Nigerian sub-populations. We found a significantly higher prevalence among children of Yoruba descent.  There was no association between vital parameters and G-6-PD deficiency or hematocrit and G-6-PD deficiency.  We did find that a history of scleral icterus was associated with G-6-PD deficiency, but we did not exclude other common causes of icterus such as sickle cell anemia or chronic malarial infection.