Is High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency a Contributory Factor for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents?
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between vitamin D deficiency and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among school age children and adolescents.
This is a case-control study which was conducted in school age children and adolescents below 18 years of age from June 2011 to May 2013 at the School Health and Primary Health care Clinics, in the state of Qatar. The study enrolled 1,331 cases and 1,331 controls. The data collection instrument included socio-demographic & clinical data, physician diagnosis, family history, and serum 25(OH) vitamin D, calcium, albumin, billirubin, magnesium, calcium, cholesterol, urea, triglyceride and phosphorus. Descriptive and univariate statistical analysis were performed. IRB approval was obtained by Hamad Medical Corporation review committee.
1331 of ADHD and 1,331 of healthy children gave their consent to participate in this study. Vitamin D deficiency was considerably higher in ADHD children compared to healthy children. The mean value of vitamin D in ADHD children was lower than the normal value, a significant difference found in the mean values of vitamin D among ADHD (16.6±7.8 with median 16) and control children (23.5±9.9) (p<0.0001) and with median 23 (p = 0.006).
The study showed that vitamin D deficiency was higher among school age children and adolescents with the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder compared to controls